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2023年考研英語(yǔ)一閱讀理解部分全文答案解析

來(lái)源:考研招生網(wǎng) liuhuimin 2022-12-26
  2023年考研英語(yǔ)一全國統一卷答案出爐!考試過(guò)后,不少考生都在互相對答案,不用對答案,直接看官方的答案及解析即可,下面是高頓小編為大家整理的考研英語(yǔ)一閱讀理解部分全部的答案及解析,供參考!
2023年考研英語(yǔ)一閱讀理解部分答案解析
  SectionⅡReading Comprehension
  Part A
  Text 1
  21.In the first paragraph,the weather in Texas is mentioned to
  A.Forecast a policy shift in Texas school
  B.Stress the consequences of climate change
  C.Indicate the atmosphere at the board meeting
  D.Draw the public’s attention to energy shortages
  【參考答案】C.
  Indicate the atmosphere at the board meeting解析:該題為例證題,問(wèn)在第一段得克薩斯州的天氣被提及為了說(shuō)明什么。文章開(kāi)頭提到得克薩斯州天氣變冷最近成為了熱議話(huà)題,但是州教育董事會(huì )的會(huì )議熱度正高(but the temperature will be high at the State Board of Education meeting),因此這里提到得克薩斯州天氣是為了來(lái)反襯州教育董事會(huì )對于天氣變化教育討論的熱度。故選C。
  22.what does Quinn think of Hardy?
  A.She exaggerates the existing panic.
  B.She denies the value of scientific work.
  C.She shows no concern for pre-teens.
  D.She expressed self-contradictory view.
  【參考答案】B.
  She denies the value of scientific work.解析:該題為細節題,根據題干中的Quinn和Hardy定位到第三段。這里提到:大多數科學(xué)家和專(zhuān)家強烈反對哈代的觀(guān)點(diǎn)。Quinn說(shuō):“他們隨意地將學(xué)者和科學(xué)家的職業(yè)工作視為另一種被誤導的觀(guān)點(diǎn)。”(They casually dismiss the career work of scholars and scientists as just another misguided opinion.)。因此證明Quinn認為Hardy否定科學(xué)研究的價(jià)值。故選B。
  23.The study in paragraph 5 shows that
  A.Climate education is insufficient at the states public schools.
  B.Policymakers have little drive for science education.
  C.Texas is reluctant to rewrite its science textbook.
  D.Environmental teaching in some states lacks supervision.
  【參考答案】A.
  Climate education is insufficient at the states public schools.解析:該題為細節題。根據題干定位到第五段,里面提到由科學(xué)家和教師組成的非營(yíng)利組織——美國國家科學(xué)教育中心去年進(jìn)行了一項研究,研究了全美州立公立學(xué)校在科學(xué)課上如何應對氣候變化,結果給美國只有一半的州給出了B+或更高的評分。(looking at how state public schools across the country address climate change in science classes,gave barely half of US states a grade B+or higher)。由此可知有另一半的州對氣候變化教育的評價(jià)不高,通過(guò)打分表示不滿(mǎn),所以顯示州立公立學(xué)校中的氣候教育不足。故選A。
  24.According to Branch,state-level science standards in the US
  A.Call for regular revision.
  B.Require urgent application.
  C.Have limited influence.
  D.Cater to local needs.
  【參考答案】C.
  Have limited influence.解析:該題為細節題。根據題干中的Branch和state-level science standards定位到第六段。里面提到:在一個(gè)將決策權下放給地方學(xué)校董事會(huì )的國家,制定州級科學(xué)標準只是一個(gè)有限的基準。(only one limited benchmark in a country).limited benchmark對應選項當中的limited influence,由此證明州科學(xué)標準影響有限。故選C。
  25.It is implied in the last paragraph that climate change teaching in some schools
  A.Agree to major public demands.
  B.Reflects teachers personal biases.
  C.May misrepresent the energy sector.
  D.Can be swayed by external forces.
  【參考答案】D.
  Can be swayed by external forces.解析:該題為細節題。根據題干信息定位到最后一段。最后一句話(huà)提及其中包括由自由主義智庫和能源行業(yè)協(xié)會(huì )贊助的教材。(they include materials sponsored by libertarian think-tanks and energy industry associations.),因此證明氣候變化教育會(huì )受到外部力量的支配。故選D。
  Text 2
  26.Which of the following is true of New England?
  A.Its housing supply is at a very low level.
  B.Its communities are in need of funding.
  C.Its rental vacancy rate is going up slowly.
  D.Its home prices are under strict control.
  【參考答案】A
  Its housing supply is at a very low level解析:該題為事實(shí)細節題,問(wèn)關(guān)于新英格蘭哪點(diǎn)是正確的,文中提到:隨著(zhù)房?jì)r(jià)創(chuàng )紀錄的高和歷史性的低庫存(with record-high home prices and historically low inventory)。所以Its housing supply is at a very low level住房供應處于非常低的水平以及historically low inventory歷史性的低庫存是同義替換,故選A。
  27.The bill mentioned in Paragraph 2 was intended to
  A.curb short-term rental speculation.
  B.ensure the supply of cheap housing.
  C.punish illegal dealings in housing.
  D.allow a free short-term rental market.
  【參考答案】D
  allow a free short-term rental market解析:該題為細節題,問(wèn)第2段提到的法案旨在,文中提到:法案將城鎮制定限制短期租賃的立法成為非法。(a bill that would’ve made it illegal for towns to create legislation restricting short-term rentals)。所以該法案不希望限制短期租賃,故選D。
  28.Compared with Castle,Taylor is more likely to support
  A.further investment in local tourism.
  B.an increase in affordable housing.
  C.strict management of real estate agents.
  D.a favorable policy for short-term workers.
  【參考答案】B
  an increase in affordable housing解析:該題為細節題,與Castle相比,Taylor更有可能支持,文中提到:沒(méi)有足夠的可負擔住房,泰勒說(shuō):“雇主很難吸引員工,工人也很難找到住處。”(Without enough affordable housing...,“employers are having a hard time attracting employees,and workers are having a hard time finding a place to live,’’Taylor said)。所以Taylor認為需要增加可負擔住房,故選B。
  29.What does Horn emphasize in Paragraph 5?
  A.The urgency to upgrade short-term rental facilities.
  B.The efficient operation of the local housing market.
  C.The necessity to stop developers from evading taxes.
  D.The proper procedures for renting out spare houses.
  【參考答案】C
  The necessity to stop developers from evading taxes解析:該題為細節題,在第5段中Horn強調了什么,文中提到:霍恩說(shuō):“我認為問(wèn)題是,一個(gè)開(kāi)發(fā)商如果真的在建造酒店,卻把它偽裝成不是酒店,難道不應該像酒店一樣受到對待、征稅和監管嗎?”(“I think the question is,shouldn’t a developer who’s really building a hotel,but disguising it as not a hotel,be treated and taxed and regulated like a hotel?’’Horn said.)所以Horn認為有必要阻止開(kāi)發(fā)商為了避稅和避開(kāi)監管而在建造酒店的過(guò)程中偽裝成不是酒店,故選C。
  30.Horn holds that imposing registration requirements is
  A.an irrational decision.
  B.an unnecessary measure.
  C.an unfeasible proposal.
  D.an inadequate solution.
  【參考答案】D
  an inadequate solution解析:該題為細節題,Horn認為強制執行登記要求是,文中提到:霍恩表示,類(lèi)似的登記要求可能會(huì )讓其他陷入困境的城市和城鎮受益。然而,解決這個(gè)問(wèn)題的唯一途徑是創(chuàng )造更多的住房。(Horn said similar registration requirements could benefit other struggling cities and towns.The only way to solve the issue,however,is by creating more housing.)說(shuō)明Horn認為類(lèi)似的登記要求其實(shí)并不是一個(gè)合適的解決方案,故選D。
  Text 3
  31.The author mentions two books in paragraph to present
  A.An ongoing conflict
  B.An intellectual concept
  C.A prevailing sentiment
  D.A literary phenomenon
  【參考答案】A.
  An ongoing conflict解析:該題為例證題。題干問(wèn)作者提及兩本書(shū)的目的是什么。例證題論據出現在開(kāi)頭,論點(diǎn)應該往后找,下一句話(huà)提到這兩本書(shū)都將于下周由企鵝蘭登書(shū)屋出版,該公司目前正與水石書(shū)店發(fā)生對峙,(Both of these books are published next week by Penguin Random House,a company currently involved in a stand-off with Waterstones.),因此證明目前出版社和書(shū)店正在發(fā)生沖突。故選A。
  32.why did Waterstones shops retire PRH books to their relevant sections?
  A.To make them easily noticeable
  B.To comply with PRH’s requirement
  C.To respond to PRH’s business move
  D.To arrange them in systematic way
  【參考答案】C.
  To respond to PRH’s business move解析:該題為細節題。題干問(wèn)為什么Waterstones(水石書(shū)店)會(huì )把PRH的書(shū)退到相關(guān)的專(zhuān)柜。根據題干信息定位到第二段最后一句。這一段開(kāi)頭提到:這個(gè)問(wèn)題(31題中提到的沖突)始于去年年底,當時(shí)企鵝蘭登書(shū)屋(PRH)證實(shí),它已經(jīng)向水石書(shū)店推出了“非常高的”信用額度限制。(The problem began late last year,when Penguin Random House confirmed that it had introduced a credit limit with Waterstones“at a very significant level”.)。因此證明水石書(shū)店把書(shū)退回是為了應對PRH的信用額度限制。故選C。
  33.what message does the spokesperson for Waterstones seem to convey?
  A.Their customers remain loyal
  B.The credit limit will be removed.
  C.Their stock is underestimated.
  D.The book market is rather slack
  【參考答案】A.
  Their customers remain loyal解析:該題為細節題。根據題干spokesperson定位到第三段第一句。答案句在這一段倒數后兩句,里面提到:“我們的商店現在重新開(kāi)張了,我們希望恢復正常,我們將被允許適當地購物。當然,我們的商店非常繁忙,圖書(shū)銷(xiāo)售也非常好。我們5月份的月度圖書(shū)銷(xiāo)量超過(guò)了2018年以來(lái)的任何一個(gè)月。(Certainly,our shops are exceptionally busy and book sales are very strong.The sales for our May Books of the Month surpassed any month since 2018.”)。說(shuō)明雖然水石書(shū)店收到信貸條款有所減少,但是圖書(shū)銷(xiāo)量非常好,印證了他們仍然有忠實(shí)的顧客。故選A。
  34.what can be one consequence of the current dispute?
  A.Sales of books by mid-list PRH writers fall off considerably.
  B.Lesser-known PRH writers become the target of criticism
  C.Waterstones staff hesitate to promote big-name author’s books.
  D.Waterstones branches suffer a severe reduction in revenue.
  【參考答案】A.
  Sales of books by mid-list PRH writers fall off considerably.解析:該題為細節題。根據題干當中的dispute定位到第四段。第二句提到知名PRH作者可能會(huì )受到一些影響,但那些通常依賴(lài)水石書(shū)店員工熱情推廣不太知名作家作品的中游作家,將會(huì )祈禱這場(chǎng)糾紛結束。(it’s those mid-list authors,who normally rely on Waterstones staff’s passion for promoting books by lesser-known writers,who will be praying for an end to the dispute.)。因此能印證居中作家的書(shū)籍銷(xiāo)量大幅下滑,處于不利地位。故選A。
  35.Which of the following statements best represents Lownie’s view?
  A.Small publishers ought to stick together.
  B.Big publishers will lose their dominance.
  C.The publishing industry is having a hard time.
  D.The merger of publishers is a worrying trend.
  【參考答案】D.
  The merger of publishers is a worrying trend.解析:該題為細節題。根據題干當中的Lownie定位到倒數第二段。答案句在最后一段:我們將看到,這種多元化(=merger)是否是當前出版商需要足夠大的規模來(lái)接納所有來(lái)客的犧牲品。作者在擔憂(yōu)是否這種多元化會(huì )成為犧牲品(We shall see whether that plurality is a casualty of the current need among publishers to be big enough to take on all-comers.),因此證明出版商的多元化是一個(gè)令人擔憂(yōu)的趨勢。故選D。
  Text 4
  36.According Paragraph 1,the careers of scientists can be determined by
  A.how many citations their works contain.
  B.how many times their papers are cited.
  C.the prestige of the people they work with.
  D.the status they have in scientific circles.
  【參考答案】B
  how many times their papers are cited解析:該題為細節題,問(wèn)科學(xué)家的職業(yè)生涯由什么決定,第一段末句提到:科學(xué)家的職業(yè)生涯及其機構的聲譽(yù)取決于他們所發(fā)表論文的數量和聲譽(yù),但更重要的是,這些論文所吸引到的引用。(but even more so on the citations attracted by these papers)所以職業(yè)家的生涯最關(guān)鍵的因素是他們論文被引用的次數。
  37.The support service consultancies tend to
  A.recommend journals to their clients.
  B.list citation patterns for their clients.
  C.ask authors to include extra citations.
  D.advise contributors to cite each other.
  【參考答案】C
  ask authors to include extra citations解析:該題為細節題,問(wèn)支持服務(wù)的咨詢(xún)公司往往會(huì ),文中提到:提供支持服務(wù)的咨詢(xún)公司有時(shí)會(huì )建議撰稿人在他們的文章和同事的文章中添加一些引文。(support service consultancies...sometimes advise contributors to add a number of citations to their articles and the articles of colleagues)。include extra citations是add a number of citations的同義替換,故選C。
  38.The function of the“milk cow”journals is to
  A.boost citation counts for certain authors.
  B.help scholars publish articles at low cost.
  C.instruct first-time contributors in citation.
  D.increase the readership of new journals.
  【參考答案】A
  boost citation counts for certain authors解析:該題為細節題,問(wèn)“奶牛”期刊的作用是什么,文中提到:這些期刊可以像奶牛一樣,每期的每篇文章都可以引用一篇特定的論文或一系列論文。(These journals can act as milk cows where every single article in an issue may cite a specific paper or a series of papers)。每期的每篇文章都可以引用特定或者一系列論文,也就是為某些作者增加引用次數,故選A。
  39.What can be learned about Scopus from the last two paragraphs?
  A.It fosters competition among citation providers.
  B.It has the capability to identify suspicious citations.
  C.It hinders the growth of“international”journals.
  D.It is established to prevent citation manipulation.
  【參考答案】B
  It has the capability to identify suspicious citations解析:該題為推理細節題,問(wèn)從最后兩段中可以得知Scopus,文中提到:Scopus本身?yè)碛袡z測這種弊端所需的所有數據。(Scopus itself has all the data necessary to detect this malpractice)。這里B項identify suspicious citations(發(fā)現可疑的引用)和原文detect this malpractice(發(fā)現這種不當行為)是同義替換,故選B。
  40.What should an author do to deal with citation manipulators?
  A.Take legal action.
  B.Demand an apology.
  C.Seek professional advice.
  D.Reveal their misconduct.
  【參考答案】D
  Reveal their misconduct解析:該題為細節題,問(wèn)作者應該如何處理引文操縱者,文中提到:當編輯、審稿人或支持服務(wù)機構要求你添加不適當的參考文獻時(shí),不要強迫自己,并將請求報告給期刊。(when an editor,a reviewer,or a support service asks you to add inappropriate references,do not oblige and do report the request to the journal)。這里D項reveal their misconduct(揭露他們的不當行為)和原文do report the request to the journal(將請求報告給期刊)是同義替換,故選D。
  Part B
  [A]This year marks the 150th anniversary of a series of Yellowstone photographs by the renowned landscape photographer William Henry Jackson.He captured the first-ever shots of iconic landmarks such as the Tetons,Old Faithful and the Colorado Rockies.Jackson snapped them on a late 19th-century expedition through the Yellowstone Basin that was conducted by the head of the U.S.Geological and Geographical Survey of the Territories,Ferdinand V.Hayden.The team included a meteorologist,a zoologist,a mineralogist,and an agricultural statistician.
  <B>Two centuries ago,the idea of preserving nature,rather than exploiting it,was a novel one to many U.S.settlers.One of the turning points in public support for land conservation efforts—and recognizing the magnificence of the Yellowstone region in particular—came in the form of vivid photographs.
  [C]As an effective Washington operator,Hayden sensed that he could capitalize on the expedition’s stunning visuals.He asked Jackson to print out large copies and distributed them,along with reproductions of Moran’s paintings,to each member of Congress.“The visualization,particularly those photographs,really hit home that this is something that has to be protected,”says Murphy.
  [D]Throughout the trip,Jackson juggled multiple cameras and plate sizes using the collision process that involved coating the plates with a chemical mixture,exposing them and developing the resulting images with a portable darkrooms.The crude technique required educated guesses on exposures times,and involved heavy,awkward equipment--several men had to assist in its transportation.Despite these challenges,Jackson captured dozens of striking photos,ranging from majestic images like his now-famous snapshot of old faithful,to casual portraits of expedition members that the camp.While veterans of previous expeditions had written at length about stunning sights,these vivid photographs were another thing entirely.
  [E]The well-documented Yellowstone journey officially began in Ogden,Utah on June 8,1871.Over nearly four months,dozens of men made their way on horseback into Montana and traversed along the Yellowstone River and around Yellowstone Lake.That fall,they concluded the survey in Fort Bridger,Wyoming.
  [F]Though Native Americans(and later miners and fur trappers)had long recognized the area’s riches,most Americans did not.That’s why Hayden’s expedition aimed to produce a fuller understanding of the Yellowstone River region,from its hot springs and waterfalls to its variety of flora and fauna.In addition to the entourage of scientists,the team also included artists:Painter Thomas Moran and photographer William Henry Jackson were charged with capturing this astounding natural beauty and sharing it with the world.
  [G]The bill proved largely popular and sailed through Congress with large majorities in favor.In quick succession,the Senate and House passed legislation protecting Yellowstone in early 1872.
  [H]Perhaps most importantly,these images provided documentary evidence of the park’s sights that later made its way to government officials.Weeks after completing the expedition,Hayden collected his team’s observations into an extensive report aimed at convincing senators and representatives,along with colleagues at government agencies like the Department of the Interior,that Yellowstone ought to be preserved(and that his department deserved additional funds).
  【41】B
  首先排除AEH選項,其次,C、D中出現了Jackson非全名,所以排除,F中出現Hayden非全名排除,G the bill表示前面出現過(guò),排除,H perhaps most importantly,these images可知前面出現過(guò)images,可排除,答案只能是B。
  【42】F
  A中出現The team included……F中出現In addition to the entourage of scientists,the team also……根據邏輯關(guān)系可知,F緊跟A后,所以答案是F
  【43】D
  D中出現Throughout the trip與E中的The well-documented Yellowstone journey……同義復現。以及D中出現images,H中出現these images。所以答案是D
  【44】C
  He asked Jackson to print out large copies and distributed……to each member of Congress.講到打印出大量得復印品分發(fā)給國會(huì ),讓國會(huì )參與。
  【45】G
  The bill proved largely popular and sailed through Congress with large majorities in favor.表示保護最后通過(guò)國會(huì )的議案,進(jìn)行立法。CG為捆綁選項。
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